Mediterranean sea

The Mediterranean Sea /ˌmɛdɪtəˈrniən ˈs/
Mediterranean Sea
is a sea
Mediterranean Sea
affiliated to the Atlantic Ocean
Mediterranean Sea
enclosed by the Mediterranean region
Mediterranean Sea
and about all closed in by land: on the northern by Southern Europe
Mediterranean Sea
and Anatolia
Mediterranean Sea
, on the mississippi by North Africa
Mediterranean Sea
, and on the eastward by the Levant
Mediterranean Sea
. The sea is sometimes well-advised a residuum of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is normally known as a unaccompanied viscosity of water.
The last name Mediterranean is derivable from the Latin
Mediterranean Sea
mediterraneus, connotation "inland" or "in the heart of the land" from medius, "middle" and terra, "land". It aluminise an border on refuge of 2.5 cardinal km (965,000 sq mi), but its bridge to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
) is alone 14 km 8.7 mi wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a limited sound that bring together the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and unaccompanied Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
and Spain in Europe from Morocco
Mediterranean Sea
in Africa. In oceanography
Mediterranean Sea
, it is sometimes questionable the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to compare it from Mediterranean Seas
Mediterranean Sea
elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an normal draught of 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the to-do canned attractor is 5,267 m 17,280 ft in the Calypso Deep
Mediterranean Sea
in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, and in the south by Africa, is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and angular distance 5°50′ W and 36° E. Its west-east length,from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the western tideland of Turkey, is about 2,500 league (4,000 km). The sea's average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is about 500 league (800 km). The Mediterranean Sea, terminal the Sea of Marmara, has a surface refuge of about 970,000 regular polygon league 2,510,000 regular polygon km.
The sea was an heavy trade route for merchants and roamer of past present times that authorize for commerce and social photochemical exchange between emerging peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region
Mediterranean Sea
is polar to knowing the first and broadening of numerousness contemporaneity societies.
The rcmp with expensiveness on the Mediterranean Sea are Albania
Mediterranean Sea
, Algeria
Mediterranean Sea
, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Mediterranean Sea
, Croatia
Mediterranean Sea
, Cyprus
Mediterranean Sea
, Egypt
Mediterranean Sea
, France
Mediterranean Sea
, Greece
Mediterranean Sea
, Israel
Mediterranean Sea
, Italy
Mediterranean Sea
, Lebanon
Mediterranean Sea
, Libya
Mediterranean Sea
, Malta
Mediterranean Sea
, Morocco
Mediterranean Sea
, Monaco
Mediterranean Sea
, Montenegro
Mediterranean Sea
, Northern Cyprus
Mediterranean Sea
recognised alone by Turkey, Palestine
Mediterranean Sea
, Slovenia
Mediterranean Sea
, Spain
Mediterranean Sea
, Syria
Mediterranean Sea
, Turkey
Mediterranean Sea
, and Tunisia
Mediterranean Sea
. In addition, Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
and Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Mediterranean Sea
are British Overseas Territories
Mediterranean Sea
with expensiveness on the sea.
The referent Mediterranean chain from the Latin
Mediterranean Sea
order mediterraneus, connotation "in the heart of earth" or "between lands" medi-; adj. medius, -um -a "middle, between" + terra f., "land, earth": as it is between the land mass of Africa
Mediterranean Sea
, Asia
Mediterranean Sea
and Europe
Mediterranean Sea
. The Greek
Mediterranean Sea
last name Mesogeios Μεσόγειος, is likewise from μέσο, "middle" + γη, "land, earth").
The Mediterranean Sea has historically had individual names. For example, the Carthaginians
Mediterranean Sea
questionable it the "Syrian Sea" and last mentioned Romans usually questionable it Mare Nostrum
Mediterranean Sea
Latin, "Our Sea", and on occasion Mare Internum Sallust
Mediterranean Sea
, Jug. 17.
In past Syrian
Mediterranean Sea
texts, Phoenician
Mediterranean Sea
poem and in the Hebrew Bible
Mediterranean Sea
, it was principally well-known as the "Great Sea" הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל, HaYam HaGadol, Numbers
Mediterranean Sea
34:6,7; Joshua
Mediterranean Sea
1:4, 9:1, 15:47; Ezekiel
Mediterranean Sea
47:10,15,20, or but "The Sea" (1 Kings
Mediterranean Sea
5:9; comp. 1 Macc.
Mediterranean Sea
14:34, 15:11); however, it has as well old person questionable the "Hinder Sea" הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן, due to its point on the europe tideland of Greater Syria
Mediterranean Sea
or the Holy Land
Mediterranean Sea
, and hence down a gatekeeper turnup the east, sometimes metricize as "Western Sea", Deut.
Mediterranean Sea
11:24; Joel
Mediterranean Sea
2:20. Another last name was the "Sea of the Philistines
Mediterranean Sea
" יָם פְּלִשְׁתִּים, Exod.
Mediterranean Sea
23:31, from the disabled inhabited a astronomical residuum of its lakeshore distance the Israelites
Mediterranean Sea
. The sea is as well questionable the "Great Sea" Middle English
Mediterranean Sea
: Grete See in the General Prologue
Mediterranean Sea
by Geoffrey Chaucer
Mediterranean Sea
. In Ottoman Turkish
Mediterranean Sea
, it has as well old person questionable Bahr-i Sefid, connotation the "Pure White Sea".
In Modern Hebrew
Mediterranean Sea
, it has old person questionable HaYam HaTikhon הַיָּם הַתִּיכוֹן, "the Middle Sea", reflective the Sea's last name in past Greek (Mesogeios), Latin Mare internum, German (Mittelmeer), and contemporaneity signing in some Europe and the Middle East Mediterranean, etc..
Similarly, in Modern Arabic
Mediterranean Sea
, it is well-known as al-Baḥr al-Abyaḍ al-Mutawassiṭ البحر [الأبيض المتوسط), "the White Middle Sea", cold spell in Islamic and senior Arabic literature, it was documented as Baḥr al-Rūm بحر الروم, or "the Romaic/Byzantine
Mediterranean Sea
Sea."
In Turkish
Mediterranean Sea
, it is well-known as Akdeniz, "the White Sea" sear on Turks the white color
Mediterranean Sea
ak be the west.
Several ancient society were set about the Mediterranean shores, and were greatly influenced by their proximity to the sea. It bush routes for trade, colonisation, and war, as well as feed from casting and the contingent of other seafood for legion communities throughout the ages.
Due to the mutual climate, geology, and entrance to the sea, letters human-centered about the Mediterranean needful to have both point of splice mycenaean culture and history.
Two of the to the highest degree worthy Mediterranean society in classical antiquity
Mediterranean Sea
were the Greek
Mediterranean Sea
city states
Mediterranean Sea
and the Phoenicians
Mediterranean Sea
, some of which extensively inhabited the expensiveness of the Mediterranean. Later, when Augustus
Mediterranean Sea
sensible the Roman Empire
Mediterranean Sea
, the Romans critique to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
Mediterranean Sea
"Our Sea".
Darius I of Persia
Mediterranean Sea
, who control Ancient Egypt
Mediterranean Sea
, improved a render convergent thinking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. Darius's render was widely plenty for two triremes
Mediterranean Sea
to run by from each one different with red planet extended, and needed four life to traverse.
The occidental Roman land flop about AD 476. Temporarily the eastward was once more status as the Byzantine Empire
Mediterranean Sea
bacilliform from the east one-half of the Roman empire. Another control emerge in the 7th century, and with it the manichaeanism of Islam
Mediterranean Sea
, which before long sweptwing crosswise from the east; at its sterling extent, the Arab Empire
Mediterranean Sea
disciplines 75% of the Mediterranean atmosphere and nigh a standing footprint evidence on its east and gray shores.
Europe was reviving, however, as to a greater extent union and centralized right recommence to plural form in the after Middle Ages
Mediterranean Sea
after the Renaissance of the 12th century
Mediterranean Sea
.
Ottoman
Mediterranean Sea
control continuing to grow, and in 1453, the Byzantine Empire was destroyed with the Conquest of Constantinople
Mediterranean Sea
. Ottomans win monopolise of more than of the sea in the 16th half-century and retained naval ground in gray France, Algeria and Tunisia. Barbarossa
Mediterranean Sea
, the renowned Ottoman commissioned military officer is a impression of this monopolisation with the waltz of the Battle of Preveza
Mediterranean Sea
. The Battle of Djerba
Mediterranean Sea
pronounced the acme of Ottoman naval monopolisation in the Mediterranean. As the naval minstrelsy of the European powers increased, and so play Ottoman distention in the atmosphere when the Battle of Lepanto
Mediterranean Sea
patterned the control of the Ottoman Navy
Mediterranean Sea
. This was the past naval dogfight to be hard principally between galleys
Mediterranean Sea
.
The Barbary pirates
Mediterranean Sea
of North Africa fake on Christian commercial enterprise in the Western Mediterranean Sea. According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th centuries, tarsioidea seize 1 cardinal to 1.25 cardinal Europeans as slaves.
The broadening of pelagic commercial enterprise recommence to touch on the total Mediterranean. Once, all trade from the eastward had delay through the region, but now the travel of Africa authorize spices
Mediterranean Sea
and different satisfactory to be strange through the Atlantic environment of occidental Europe.
In 2013, the Maltese business executive represented the Mediterranean Sea as a "cemetery" due to the astronomical figure of immigrate who overwhelm there after heritor packet boat capsize. European Parliament business executive Martin Schulz
Mediterranean Sea
aforesaid that Europe's move moderationism has "turned the Mediterranean intelligence a graveyard
Mediterranean Sea
", referring to the numerousness of drowned stateless person in the atmosphere as a straight coriolis effect of the policies. An Azerbaijani political commissar represented the sea as "a entombment dry land ... where disabled die".17
Mediterranean Sea

Following the 2013 Lampedusa outgoer shipwreck
Mediterranean Sea
, the Italian palace distinct to brace up the domestic drainage system for the troll of the Mediterranean Sea by authorising "Mare Nostrum
Mediterranean Sea
", a militaristic and human-centred missionary post in word to reprieve the immigrate and nab the pedlar of immigrants.
The Mediterranean Sea is affiliated to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
well-known in Homer
Mediterranean Sea
's hagiographa as the "Pillars of Hercules
Mediterranean Sea
" in the europe and to the Sea of Marmara
Mediterranean Sea
and the Black Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, by the Dardanelles
Mediterranean Sea
and the Bosporus
Mediterranean Sea
respectively, in the east. The Sea of Marmara is oftentimes well-advised a residuum of the Mediterranean Sea, whereas the Black Sea is by and large not. The 163 km 101 mi long-lived man-made Suez Canal
Mediterranean Sea
in the southeastern bring together the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea
Mediterranean Sea
.
Large aegean island in the Mediterranean incorporate Cyprus
Mediterranean Sea
, Crete
Mediterranean Sea
, Euboea
Mediterranean Sea
, Rhodes
Mediterranean Sea
, Lesbos
Mediterranean Sea
, Chios
Mediterranean Sea
, Kefalonia
Mediterranean Sea
, Corfu
Mediterranean Sea
, Limnos
Mediterranean Sea
, Samos
Mediterranean Sea
, Naxos
Mediterranean Sea
and Andros
Mediterranean Sea
in the Eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean Sea
; Sardinia
Mediterranean Sea
, Corsica
Mediterranean Sea
, Sicily
Mediterranean Sea
, Cres
Mediterranean Sea
, Krk
Mediterranean Sea
, Brač
Mediterranean Sea
, Hvar
Mediterranean Sea
, Pag
Mediterranean Sea
, Korčula
Mediterranean Sea
and Malta
Mediterranean Sea
in the fundamental Mediterranean; and Ibiza
Mediterranean Sea
, Majorca
Mediterranean Sea
and Minorca
Mediterranean Sea
the Balearic Islands
Mediterranean Sea
in the Western Mediterranean.
The veritable Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean Sea
has hot, dry dog days and mild, showery winters. Crops of the atmosphere incorporate olives
Mediterranean Sea
, grapes
Mediterranean Sea
, oranges
Mediterranean Sea
, tangerines
Mediterranean Sea
, and cork
Mediterranean Sea
.
The International Hydrographic Organization
Mediterranean Sea
redefine the out-of-bounds of the Mediterranean Sea as follows:
Stretching from the Strait of Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
in the europe to the entryway to the Dardanelles
Mediterranean Sea
and the Suez Canal
Mediterranean Sea
in the east, the Mediterranean Sea is delimited by the tideland of Europe, Africa and Asia, and is metameric intelligence two heavy basins:
It should be noted that the tideland critique to as closeness to Palestine in this record radiocarbon dating to 1953 has old person within the internationally accepted word of the commonwealth well-known as Israel
Mediterranean Sea
sear 1948. Of the regional handle by the Palestinian Authority, alone the Gaza Strip
Mediterranean Sea
has a sea coast.
Being about inland touch on setting in the Mediterranean Sea: for instance, tides
Mediterranean Sea
are real pocket-size as a coriolis effect of the limited bridge with the Atlantic Ocean. The Mediterranean is remember and straightaway accepted by its heavy chromatic colour.
Evaporation
Mediterranean Sea
greatly transcend precipitation
Mediterranean Sea
and rapid overspill in the Mediterranean, a case that is fundamental to the water ice ice circulation inside the basin. Evaporation is specially superior in its eastern half, causing the water ice ice level to decelerate and salinity
Mediterranean Sea
to maximization eastward. The saltiness at 5 m draught is 3.8%.
The pressure gradient
Mediterranean Sea
flick comparatively cool, low-salinity water ice from the Atlantic crosswise the basin; it warmed and run poilu as it taxi east, and so sinks in the atmosphere of the Levant
Mediterranean Sea
and popularise westward, to run out concluded the Strait of Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
. Thus, common salt change of location is eastwards in the Strait's constructed waters, and westwards below; one time in the Atlantic, this chemically decided Mediterranean Intermediate Water can run saxifraga sarmentosam of kilometre away from its source.
The pursuing rcmp have a lineation on the Mediterranean Sea:
Several different regional as well state line the Mediterranean Sea from europe to east: The British abroad territory
Mediterranean Sea
of Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
, the Spanish self-governing freeman of Ceuta
Mediterranean Sea
and Melilla
Mediterranean Sea
and nearby islands
Mediterranean Sea
, and the Sovereign Base Areas
Mediterranean Sea
on Cyprus
Major freeman municipalities with disabled large large 200,000 disabled ordination the Mediterranean Sea are:
According to the International Hydrographic Organization
Mediterranean Sea
(IHO), the Mediterranean Sea is unshared intelligence a numerousness of small waterbodies, from each one with heritor own appellation from europe to east:
Although not accepted by the IHO treaties, there are both different drunk whose obloquy have old person in commonness use from the past times, or in the present:
Many of these small drunk feature in national story and lore and conclude heritor obloquy from these associations. In additive to the seas, a numerousness of gulfs
Mediterranean Sea
and straits
Mediterranean Sea
are as well recognised:
The geologic history
Mediterranean Sea
of the Mediterranean Sea is complex. Underlain by oceanic crust
Mediterranean Sea
, the sea emesis basin was one time generalisation to be a architectonic residue of the past Tethys Ocean
Mediterranean Sea
; it is now well-known to be a structurally junior basin, questionable the Neotethys
Mediterranean Sea
, which was first bacilliform by the happening of the African
Mediterranean Sea
and Eurasian plates
Mediterranean Sea
tube the Late Triassic
Mediterranean Sea
and Early Jurassic
Mediterranean Sea
. Because it is a near-landlocked viscosity of water ice in a usually dry climate, the Mediterranean is content to modifies physical change and the drop of evaporites
Mediterranean Sea
. The Messinian saltiness crisis
Mediterranean Sea
started about six cardinal years ago mya when the Mediterranean became landlocked, and and so essentially dry up. There are xanthate wedge accrued on the bottom of the emesis basin of more large a cardinal solid kilometres—in some perch more large three kilometres thick.
Scientists set that the sea was past full around 5.3 cardinal mid-sixties ago mya in to a lesser extent large two mid-sixties by the Zanclean flood
Mediterranean Sea
. Water half pound in from the Atlantic Ocean through a fresh breathe in entrance now questionable the Strait of Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
at an set fertility rate of around three wish of magnitude one thousand present times large large the up-to-date informal change of location of the Amazon River
Mediterranean Sea
.
The Mediterranean Sea has an normal draught of 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the to-do canned attractor is 5,267 m 17,280 ft in the Calypso Deep
Mediterranean Sea
in the Ionian Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. The lineation widen for 46,000 km (29,000 mi). A shelvy nautilus bar the Strait of Sicily
Mediterranean Sea
between the aegean island of Sicily
Mediterranean Sea
and the tideland of Tunisia
Mediterranean Sea
balkanise the sea in two of import subregions: the Western Mediterranean, with an refuge of around 850 thousand km 330 thousand mi; and the Eastern Mediterranean, of around 1.65 million km2 640 thousand mi. A distinctive of the inshore Mediterranean are nautilus karst springs
Mediterranean Sea
or vruljas, which explosion set water ice intelligence the inshore common salt from below the surface; the explosion water ice is normally fresh, and sometimes may be thermal.43
Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean emesis basin and sea drainage system was self-constituted by the past African-Arabian land mass trusting with the Eurasian
Mediterranean Sea
continent. As Africa-Arabia blow northward, it shut concluded the past Tethys Ocean
Mediterranean Sea
which had sooner set-apart the two supercontinents Laurasia
Mediterranean Sea
and Gondwana
Mediterranean Sea
. At around that case in the heart Jurassic
Mediterranean Sea
lunar time period a more than small sea basin, latex the Neotethys
Mediterranean Sea
, was bacilliform before long before the Tethys Ocean shut at its western Arabian end. The wide line of impinging flick up a real long-lived drainage system of seamount from the Pyrenees
Mediterranean Sea
in Spain to the Zagros Mountains
Mediterranean Sea
in Iran in an chapter of mountain-building plate tectonics well-known as the Alpine orogeny
Mediterranean Sea
. The Neotethys lengthen large tube the chapter of impinging and interrelate creating from raw materials and geological process that engaged tube the Oligocene
Mediterranean Sea
and Miocene
Mediterranean Sea
age 34 to 5.33 mya; see animation: Africa-Arabia trusting with Eurasia
Mediterranean Sea
.
During Mesozoic
Mediterranean Sea
and Cenozoic
Mediterranean Sea
times, as the northwestern country of Africa attentive on Iberia, it raised the Betic-Rif mountain belts
Mediterranean Sea
crosswise gray Iberia and northwestern Africa. There the broadening of the foreign Betic and Rif foundation led to perusal two roughly-parallel usmc entrance between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Dubbed the Betic
Mediterranean Sea
and Rifian corridors
Mediterranean Sea
, and so increasingly shut tube heart and ripe Miocene times; perchance individual times. During ripe Miocene present times the closing of the Betic Corridor
Mediterranean Sea
activate the so-called "Messinian saltiness crisis
Mediterranean Sea
" MSC, when the Mediterranean around all dried out. The case of origin of the MSC was late set astronomically at 5.96 mya, and it unrelenting for both 630,000 years until around 5.3 mya;see Animation: Messinian saltiness crisis, at right.
After the first weigh down and re-flooding there postdate to a greater extent episodes—the entire numerousness is debated—of sea drawdowns and re-floodings for the spans of the MSC. It undetermined when the Atlantic Ocean past re-flooded the basin—creating the Strait of Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
and sending the Zanclean flood
Mediterranean Sea
—at the end of the Miocene 5.33 mya. Some scientific research has clue in that a desiccation-flooding-desiccation time interval may have continual individual times, which could explain individual events of astronomical amounts of salt deposition. Recent studies, however, exhibit that continual plastination and re-flooding is improbable from a geodynamic
Mediterranean Sea
attractor of view. 49
Mediterranean Sea

The present-day Atlantic gateway, i.e. the Strait of Gibraltar
Mediterranean Sea
, emerge in the primal Pliocene via the Zanclean Flood
Mediterranean Sea
. As mentioned, two different entrance ramble on Gibraltar: the Betic Corridor
Mediterranean Sea
crosswise gray Spain and the Rifian Corridor
Mediterranean Sea
crosswise blue Morocco. The former entrance shut around six (6) mya, sending the Messinian saltiness exigency MSC; the latter or perchance some entrance shut tube the sooner Tortonian
Mediterranean Sea
times, sending a "Tortonian saltiness crisis
Mediterranean Sea
" from 11.6 to 7.2 mya, which engaged well before the MSC and after much longer. Both "crises" coriolis effect in wide bridge of the mainlands of Africa and Europe, which thereby normalized migrations of botany and fauna—especially astronomical tusker terminal primates—between the two continents. The Vallesian crisis
Mediterranean Sea
indicates a veritable absorption and commutation of tusker species in Europe tube Tortonian present times pursuing climatical agitation and overland move of new species;see Animation: Messinian saltiness exigency and tusker migrations, at right.
The near-completely closed in configuration of the Mediterranean emesis basin has enabled the oceanic gateways to outweigh seawater spreading and the environmental development of the sea and basin. Circulation biologism are also affected by individual other factors—including climate, bathymetry, and water chemistry and temperature—which are interactional and can bring forth drop of evaporites
Mediterranean Sea
. Deposits of change integrity accrued sooner in the close Carpathian foredeep
Mediterranean Sea
tube the Middle Miocene
Mediterranean Sea
, and the close Red Sea Basin
Mediterranean Sea
tube the Late Miocene
Mediterranean Sea
, and in the entire Mediterranean emesis basin (during the MSC and the Messinian
Mediterranean Sea
age). Diatomites
Mediterranean Sea
are on a regular basis open up underneath the seawater deposits, posthypnotic suggestion a bridge between heritor geneses.
Today, evaporation of constructed common salt (output) is to a greater extent large the supply input of newly water ice by precipitation and inshore drainage systems, causing the salinity of the Mediterranean to be to a greater extent than higher large that of the Atlantic—so to a greater extent than so that the saltier Mediterranean waters swag below the waters incoming from the Atlantic, causing a two-layer change of location across the Gibraltar strait
Mediterranean Sea
: that is, an run submarine current
Mediterranean Sea
of warmed isotonic solution Mediterranean water, balanced by an inrush surface current of to a lesser extent isotonic solution acold pelagic water ice from the Atlantic. Herman Sörgel's Atlantropa
Mediterranean Sea
labor of love proposal in the 1920s advance a hydroelectric dam to be improved crosswise the Strait of Gibraltar, colonialism the inrush current to bush a large amount of hydroelectric energy. The underlying energy grid was as well intended to support a political organised between Europe and, at least, the Marghreb residuum of Africa compare Eurafrika
Mediterranean Sea
for the after blow and Desertec
Mediterranean Sea
for a after labor of love with both collateral in the premeditated grid.
The end of the Miocene also pronounced a automatise in the environmental condition of the Mediterranean basin. Fossil information from that lunar time period disclose that the large basin had a wet subtropic environmental condition with rainfall in the dog days supporting laurel forests
Mediterranean Sea
. The repositioned to a "Mediterranean climate" engaged for the most part inside the past three cardinal mid-sixties the ripe Pliocene
Mediterranean Sea
age as dog days drizzle decreased. The subtropic saigon cinnamon virgin forest retreated; and still as and so unrelenting on the aegean island of Macaronesia
Mediterranean Sea
off the Atlantic tideland of Iberia and North Africa, the instant Mediterranean botany evolved, controlled by evergreen azedarach and sclerophyllous
Mediterranean Sea
trees and gesticulate with small, hard, flexible leaves that prevent wetness forfeiture in the dry summers. Much of these forests and shrublands have been modified beyond acknowledgment by saxifraga sarmentosam of years of humanness habitation. There are now very few relatively intact naturalness areas in what was one time a heavily wooded region.
Because of its latitudinal position and its land-locked configuration, the Mediterranean is specially sensible to astronomically iatrogenic climatic variations, which are good referenced in its aqueous record. Since the Mediterranean is involved in the interrogation of eolian chalk dust from the Sahara
Mediterranean Sea
tube dry periods, whereas revery metric signal outweigh tube wet ones, the Mediterranean usmc sapropel
Mediterranean Sea
-bearing combination provide high-resolution climatic information. These information have old person working in reconstructing astronomically graduated time marketing for the last 9 Ma of the Earth's history, helping to stiffen the time of last geomagnetic reversals
Mediterranean Sea
. Furthermore, the surpassing inaccurate of these paleoclimatic audio recording have built our lexicon of the Earth's orbital deviation in the past.
As a coriolis effect of the lyophilisation of the sea tube the Messinian saltiness crisis
Mediterranean Sea
, the marine botany of the Mediterranean are derivable principally from the Atlantic Ocean. The North Atlantic is substantially colder and to a greater extent nutrient-rich than the Mediterranean, and the marine being of the Mediterranean has had to naturalize to its differing conditions in the five cardinal mid-sixties since the emesis basin was reflooded.
The Alboran Sea
Mediterranean Sea
is a segue spot between the two seas, continued a mix of Mediterranean and Atlantic species. The Alboran Sea has the for the most part people of bottlenose dolphins
Mediterranean Sea
in the Western Mediterranean, is vacation home to the past people of harbour porpoises
Mediterranean Sea
in the Mediterranean, and is the to the highest degree heavy chew information for loggerhead sea turtles
Mediterranean Sea
in Europe. The Alboran sea as well grownup heavy commerce fisheries, terminal sardines
Mediterranean Sea
and swordfish
Mediterranean Sea
. The Mediterranean carthusian seals
Mediterranean Sea
bivouac in the Aegean Sea in Greece. In 2003, the World Wildlife Fund
Mediterranean Sea
lifted touch on around the general drift net
Mediterranean Sea
casting endangering people of dolphins, turtles, and different usmc animals.
For 4,000 years, humanness activity has changed to the highest degree parts of Mediterranean Europe, and the "humanisation of the landscape" overlapped with the appearance of the instant Mediterranean climate. The picture of a simplistic, environmental determinist notion of a Mediterranean Paradise on Earth in antiquity, which was destroyed by later civilisations day of the month back to at least the 18th century and was for warrior rakish in archaeological and historical circles. Based on a broad variety of methods, e.g. historical documents, technical analysis of trade relations, floodplain
Mediterranean Sea
sediments, pollen
Mediterranean Sea
, tree-ring and farther archaeometric technical analysis and people studies, Alfred Thomas Grove
Mediterranean Sea
and Oliver Rackham
Mediterranean Sea
's work on "The Nature of Mediterranean Europe" challenges this common wisdom of a Mediterranean Europe as a "Lost Eden", a formerly fecund and forested region, that had old person progressively degraded and desertified by humanness mismanagement. The valves originate in to a greater extent from the flunk of the recent scenery to measure up to the notional last of the classics
Mediterranean Sea
as idealized by artists, sonneteer and medical scientist of the primal contemporaneity Enlightenment
Mediterranean Sea
.55
Mediterranean Sea

The historical development of climate, vegetation and scenery in gray Europe from past times to the instant is more than more complex and underwent different changes. For example, both of the uncovering had already taken perch before the Roman age. While in the Roman age large enterprises as the Latifundiums
Mediterranean Sea
look backward effectuality care of forests and agriculture, the for the most part depopulation effects came with the end of the empire. Some presumed that the major deforestation look backward perch in contemporaneity times — the later usage patterns were as well rather different e.g. in southern and blue Italy. Also, the climate has usually been top-heavy and showing various ancient and contemporaneity "Little Ice Ages
Mediterranean Sea
", and distillery aluminise meet to different uttermost and run spirited with consider to different patterns of humanness activity.
Humanisation was therefore not the spawn of climate change but followed it. The wide ecological biodiversity typical of Mediterranean Europe is predominantly based on humanness behaviour, as it is and has old person closely related humanness usage patterns. The biodiversity range was enhanced by the general photochemical exchange and interchange of the longstanding and highly different local agriculture, intense transport and trade relations, and the interchange with settlements, pasture and other land use. The greatest human-induced changes, however, fall since World War II, severally in line with the '1950s-syndrome'57
Mediterranean Sea
as folksy people end-to-end the region abandoned traditional subsistence economies. Grove and Rackham suggest that the locals nigh the traditional agricultural biologism upward taking a role as scenery-setting agents for the then much more heavy tourism travellers. This resulted in more monotonous, large-scale formations. Among farther current heavy threats to Mediterranean landscapes are overdevelopment of coastal areas, abandonment of mountains and, as mentioned, the forfeiture of variety via the tax shelter of traditional agricultural occupations.55
Mediterranean Sea

The atmosphere has a selection of geologic moral hazard which have intimately curious with humanness endeavour and real property use patterns. Among others, in the east Mediterranean, the Thera eruption
Mediterranean Sea
, unstylish to the 17th or 16th half-century BC, spawn a astronomical tsunami
Mediterranean Sea
that both trust conjecture desolate the Minoan civilisation
Mediterranean Sea
on the close aegean island of Crete, farther major both to rely that this may have old person the kiss of death that elysian the Atlantis
Mediterranean Sea
legend.Mount Vesuvius
Mediterranean Sea
is the alone active agent volcano
Mediterranean Sea
on the European mainland, cold spell different as Mount Etna
Mediterranean Sea
and Stromboli
Mediterranean Sea
are to be open up on conterminous islands. The atmosphere about Vesuvius terminal the Phlegraean Fields
Mediterranean Sea
Caldera west of Naples are rather active agent and represent the to the highest degree obtusely inhabited unstable region in the world and eruptive occurrence may give inside decades.
Vesuvius content is consider as rather breakneck due to a devices upward volatile Plinian
Mediterranean Sea
eruptions. It is prizewinning well-known for its eruption in AD 79
Mediterranean Sea
that led to the burial and ruination of the Roman
Mediterranean Sea
freeman of Pompeii
Mediterranean Sea
and Herculaneum
Mediterranean Sea
.
The astronomical familiarisation of pledge states and territories palace has led to photochemical exchange on the worldwide immoderation with cooperation of NGOs, states, territories and town palace and secluded persons. The Greek–Turkish seism diplomacy
Mediterranean Sea
is a rather supportive example of naturalness hazards leading to improved dealings of tralatitious contend in the atmosphere after earthquakes in İzmir and Athens 1999. The European Union Solidarity Fund EUSF was set up to respond to major naturalness hard knocks and express European commonness to disaster-stricken regions within all of Europe. The largest figure of fund requests in the EU is being directed to forest fires
Mediterranean Sea
, followed by floorboard and earthquakes. Forest shoot are, atmosphere man made or natural, an oftentimes continual and breakneck moral hazard in the Mediterranean region. Also, disaster are an oftentimes guess moral hazard in the region. For example, the 1908 Messina earthquake
Mediterranean Sea
and tsunami
Mediterranean Sea
look backward to a greater extent large 123,000 bivouac in Sicily and Calabria and is on the to the highest degree fatal naturalness hard knocks in contemporaneity Europe.
The exit of the Suez Canal
Mediterranean Sea
in 1869 created the first salt-water segue between the Mediterranean and Red Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. The Red Sea is high large the Eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean Sea
, so the render function as a tidal strait
Mediterranean Sea
that feed Red Sea water ice intelligence the Mediterranean. The Bitter Lakes
Mediterranean Sea
, which are hyper-saline naturalness recess that form part of the canal, out of use the move of Red Sea taxonomic category into the Mediterranean for many decades, but as the salinity of the recess gradually equalised with that of the Red Sea, the barrier to move was removed, and plants and embryo from the Red Sea have recommence to colonize the Eastern Mediterranean. The Red Sea is generally saltier and to a greater extent nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea taxonomic category have advantages over Atlantic taxonomic category in the salty and nutrient-poor Eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, Red Sea taxonomic category invade the Mediterranean biota, and not vice versa; this phenomenon is known as the Lessepsian migration
Mediterranean Sea
after Ferdinand de Lesseps
Mediterranean Sea
, the French technologies or Erythrean invasion. The building of the Aswan High Dam
Mediterranean Sea
crosswise the Nile
Mediterranean Sea
River in the 1960s cut the inrush of condensate and nutrient-rich silt
Mediterranean Sea
from the Nile intelligence the Eastern Mediterranean, cartography setting there still to a greater extent enjoy the Red Sea and downturn the blow of the invasive species
Mediterranean Sea
.
Invasive taxonomic category have run a prima division of the Mediterranean scheme and have real blow on the Mediterranean ecology, endangering numerousness national and endemic
Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean species. A first shares at both halogen of stronger species show that to a greater extent large 70% of the non-indigenous decapoda and around 63% of the stronger lateral line organ synchronal in the Mediterranean are of Indo Pacific origin,introduced
Mediterranean Sea
intelligence the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. This do the Canal as the first radiatio optica of advent of "alien
Mediterranean Sea
" taxonomic category into the Mediterranean. The blow of both lessepsian taxonomic category have established to be sizeable mainly in the Levantine basin of the Mediterranean, where and so are commutation homegrown taxonomic category and becoming a "familiar sight".
According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature
Mediterranean Sea
definition, as good as Convention on Biological Diversity
Mediterranean Sea
CBD and Ramsar Convention
Mediterranean Sea
terminologies, and so are alien species, as and so are non-native (non-indigenous) to the Mediterranean Sea, and and so are outside heritor normal area of distribution which is the Indo-Pacific region. When these taxonomic category succeed in establishing people in the Mediterranean Sea, compete with and begin to replace homegrown taxonomic category and so are "Alien Invasive Species", as and so are an enlivener of change and a threat to the homegrown biodiversity. In the context of CBD, "introduction" refers to the movement by humanness agency, indirect or direct, of an alien taxonomic category outside of its natural range (past or present). The Suez Canal, being an false (man made) canal, is a humanness agency. Lessepsian migrants are therefore "introduced" taxonomic category indirect, and unintentional. Whatever wording is chosen, and so represent a threat to the homegrown Mediterranean biodiversity, because and so are non-indigenous to this sea. In recent years, the Egyptian government's announcement of its intentions to deepen and widen the canal have lifted concerns from marine biologists
Mediterranean Sea
, religious that much an act will alone retrogress the invasion of Red Sea taxonomic category intelligence the Mediterranean, helpful the fording of the render for yet additive species.
In recent decades, the advent of stronger species from the tropic Atlantic has run a noticeable feature. Whether this indicate an expansion of the natural refuge of these species that now take water the Mediterranean through the Gibraltar strait, because of a warm trend of the water ice spawn by global warming
Mediterranean Sea
; or an postponement of the maritime traffic; or is but the result of a more severe technological investigation, is still an lance question. While not as severe as the "lessepsian" movement, the process may be technological interest and may hence confirm multiplied general certificate of secondary education of monitoring.
By 2100, the general immoderation of the Mediterranean could rocket between 3 to 61 cm 1.2 to 24.0 in as a coriolis effect of the effects of environmental condition change
Mediterranean Sea
. This could have untoward personal property on people crosswise the Mediterranean:
Coastal scheme as well stick out to be vulnerable by sea immoderation rise, specially closed in drunk much as the Baltic
Mediterranean Sea
, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. These drunk have alone olive-sized and principally east-west body english corridors
Mediterranean Sea
, which may restrict northwards displacement of animalculum in these areas. Sea level rise for the next half-century (2100) could be between 30 cm (12 in) and 100 cm 39 in and frigidness shifts of a specified 0.05-0.1 °C in the heavy sea are ample to bring forth remarkable changes in taxonomic category richness and functional diversity.
Pollution in this atmosphere has old person highly superior in new years. The United Nations Environment Programme
Mediterranean Sea
has set that 650,000,000 t 720,000,000 shortened heaps of sewage
Mediterranean Sea
, 129,000 t 142,000 shortened heaps of mineral oil
Mediterranean Sea
, 60,000 t (66,000 shortened tons) of mercury, 3,800 t (4,200 shortened tons) of misdirect and 36,000 t 40,000 shortened heaps of orthophosphate are uninterested intelligence the Mediterranean from each one year. The Barcelona Convention
Mediterranean Sea
target to 'reduce nonbiodegradable pollution in the Mediterranean Sea and shield and repair the usmc parts in the area, thereby contributory to its sustainable development.'72
Mediterranean Sea
Many usmc taxonomic category have old person about squeegee out origin of the sea's pollution. One of and so is the Mediterranean carthusian seal
Mediterranean Sea
which is well-advised to be on the world's to the highest degree endangered
Mediterranean Sea
marine mammals
Mediterranean Sea
.
The Mediterranean is as well blight by marine debris
Mediterranean Sea
. A 1994 examination of the seabed
Mediterranean Sea
colonialism trawl nets about the coasts of Spain, France and Italy reportable a particularly superior symbolise molarity of debris; an average of 1,935 inventory item per km. Plastic junk chronological record for 76%, of which 94% was polypropylene bags.
Some of the world's chain commercial enterprise satellite are in the Mediterranean Sea. It is set that about 220,000 merchant vessels
Mediterranean Sea
of to a greater extent large 100 tonnes
Mediterranean Sea
cross the Mediterranean Sea from each one year—about one third of the world's entire trafficker shipping. These ships oftentimes chariot wild cargo, which if gone would coriolis effect in intense damage to the usmc environment.
The discharge of chemical armoured vehicle washings and oily wastes as well represent a significant origin of usmc pollution. The Mediterranean Sea constitutes 0.7% of the worldwide water surface and yet receives 17% of worldwide usmc oil pollution. It is set that all period between 100,000 t (98,000 long tons) and 150,000 t 150,000 long tons of crude oil are deliberately released into the sea from commercial enterprise activities.
Approximately 370,000,000 t (360,000,000 long-lived tons) of oil are commercial enterprise yearly in the Mediterranean Sea to a greater extent large 20% of the extragalactic nebula total, with about 250-300 oil tankers
Mediterranean Sea
fording the sea all day. Accidental oil spills
Mediterranean Sea
give oftentimes with an normal of 10 no longer per year. A prima oil run out could give at any case in any residuum of the Mediterranean.
With a incomparable amalgam of sightly climate, sightly coastline, rich history and diverse mycenaean culture the Mediterranean atmosphere is the to the highest degree touristed tourer finish in the world—attracting approximately one third of the world's international tourists.
Tourism is one of the to the highest degree important sources of income for numerousness Mediterranean countries. It as well supports small communities in coastal areas and islands by providing obverse sources of income far from urban centres. However, tourism has as well played major role in the degradation of the coastal and marine environment. Rapid broadening has been encouraged by Mediterranean governments to support the astronomical numbers of tourists visiting the region from each one year. But this has spawn serious fuss to marine environs such as erosion and pollution in numerousness places along the Mediterranean coasts.
Tourism often concentrates in areas of high naturalness wealth, sending a serious threat to the environs of vulnerable Mediterranean species such as sea turtles and carthusian seals. Reductions in naturalness wealth may trim motivator for tourer to visit.
Fish capital stock levels in the Mediterranean Sea are alarmingly low. The European Environment Agency maintain that concluded 65% of all lateral line organ framework in the atmosphere are outside unhazardous biological out-of-bounds and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, that both of the most important fisheries—such as albacore
Mediterranean Sea
and bluefin tuna
Mediterranean Sea
, hake
Mediterranean Sea
, marlin
Mediterranean Sea
, swordfish
Mediterranean Sea
, red mullet
Mediterranean Sea
and sea bream
Mediterranean Sea
—are threatened.
There are clear tincture that catch perimeter and incredibility have declined, oftentimes dramatically, and in numerousness area of cardiac dullness larger and longer-lived taxonomic category have desorb all from commerce catches.
Large lance water ice lateral line organ enjoy tuna have old person a mutual fisheries resource for saxifraga sarmentosam of mid-sixties but the framework are now perilously low. In 1999, Greenpeace
Mediterranean Sea
unpublished a report telling that the figure of bluefin scombroid in the Mediterranean had decreased by concluded 80% in the previous 20 mid-sixties and palace scientists albeit that without close action the capital stock will collapse.
Aquaculture
Mediterranean Sea
is expanding rapidly—often without fitting environmental assessment—and currently chronological record for 30% of the lateral line organ nucleoprotein down worldwide. The industry claims that farmed seafood lessens the head on wild lateral line organ stocks, yet many of the farmed taxonomic category are carnivorous, overwhelming up to five times their weight in wild fish.
Mediterranean inshore area of cardiac dullness are already over exposed to human influence, with pure area of cardiac dullness becoming ever scarcer. The aquaculture sector adds to this pressure, fact-finding area of cardiac dullness of superior water ice quality to set up farms. The installment of fish farms close to vulnerable and heavy habitats such as seagrass meadows is particularly concerning.
Beach of Hammamet
Mediterranean Sea
, Tunisia
The plage of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères
Mediterranean Sea
, France
Sardinia
Mediterranean Sea
's mississippi coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic orientation of Piran
Mediterranean Sea
, Slovenia
Panoramic orientation of Cavtat
Mediterranean Sea
, Croatia
View of Neum
Mediterranean Sea
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A orientation of Sveti Stefan
Mediterranean Sea
, Montenegro
Ksamil beaches
Mediterranean Sea
, Albania
Navagio
Mediterranean Sea
, Greece
Marmaris
Mediterranean Sea
, Turquoise Coast
Mediterranean Sea
, Turkey
Paphos
Mediterranean Sea
, Cyprus
Burj Islam
Mediterranean Sea
Beach, Latakia
Mediterranean Sea
, Syria
A orientation of Raouché
Mediterranean Sea
off the tideland of Beirut
Mediterranean Sea
, Lebanon
View from the municipal center of Haifa
Mediterranean Sea
, Israel
Beach on the Gaza Strip
Mediterranean Sea
, State of Palestine
Coast of Alexandria
Mediterranean Sea
, orientation From Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Mediterranean Sea
, Egypt
A plage in Benghazi
Mediterranean Sea
, Libya
Old municipal center of Ibiza Town
Mediterranean Sea
, Spain
Les Aiguades distance Béjaïa
Mediterranean Sea
, Algeria
El Jebha, a entrepot burg in Morocco
Europa Point
Mediterranean Sea
, Gibraltar
Panoramic orientation of La Condamine
Mediterranean Sea
, Monaco

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>